Now as we already covered the basics of Elixir in the previous articles we can try to practice a little bit. Here I would like to solve the Toy Robot Simulator problem which I’ve found here. I guess that is not original source and it was reposted at many other resources.

Fast forward a little bit. As soon my brain thinks in terms of Object-Oriented Programming (yet), my solution, most likely, would not be perfect from the functional programming point of view. That is fine for now. That is the point. Because I want to practice and will try to apply practices of functional programming as much as I can.

I will try to provide links to previous articles so you can read more about certain topics once you feel lack of knowledge in that area.

So let’s start by creating a new application. (More about using mix to create applications here)

→ mix new toy_robot


I’ve also cleaned up the boilerplate code a little bit. Let’s look at the requirements again:

Create an application that can read in commands of the following form:

PLACE X,Y,F
MOVE
LEFT
RIGHT
REPORT

We can start by implementing our place function.

## Place the robot into initial position

• PLACE will put the toy robot on the table in position X,Y and facing NORTH, SOUTH, EAST or WEST.

defmodule ToyRobotTest do
use ExUnit.Case
doctest ToyRobot

test "places the Toy Robot on the table in the default position" do
assert ToyRobot.place == %ToyRobot.Position{x: 0, y: 0, facing: :north}
end
end


I am describing the ToyRobot.place/0 function here which will be used to place the robot in the default position. As soon as we need to operate with a position of the Robot, I find the Structure to be working well for that. (More about structures here)

Then we will run our tests, check the error and proceed the iteration.

→ mix test
** (CompileError) test/toy_robot_test.exs:6: ToyRobot.Position.__struct__/1 is undefined, cannot expand struct ToyRobot.Position


Let’s create new file lib/position.ex there we will define our structure:

defmodule ToyRobot.Position do
defstruct x: 0, y: 0, facing: :north
end


Run the tests again:

→ mix test
Compiling 1 file (.ex)
Generated toy_robot app

1) test places the Toy Robot on the table in the default position (ToyRobotTest)
test/toy_robot_test.exs:5
** (UndefinedFunctionError) function ToyRobot.place/0 is undefined or private
code: assert ToyRobot.place == %ToyRobot.Position{x: 0, y: 0, facing: :north}
stacktrace:
(toy_robot) ToyRobot.place()
test/toy_robot_test.exs:6: (test)

Finished in 0.04 seconds
1 test, 1 failure


Now we need to define our ToyRobot.place/0 function.

defmodule ToyRobot do
def place do
%ToyRobot.Position{}
end
end


And we are green now.

→ mix test
Compiling 1 file (.ex)
.

Finished in 0.03 seconds
1 test, 0 failures


As the next step, we will proceed with the implementation of ToyRobot.place/3. First goes the test:

test "places the Toy Robot on the table in the specified position" do
assert ToyRobot.place(1, 2, :south) == %ToyRobot.Position{x: 1, y: 2, facing: :south}
end


and the implementation itself

def place(x, y, facing) do
%ToyRobot.Position{x: x, y: y, facing: facing}
end


In this case, we place our robot into coordinates provides to us.

## Get reports from the Robot

Once we have our robot at the position, we can start asking it to provide a report to us. Even if we know his position anyway, this functionality would be still useful for us. It would be easy for us to check the following functions.

Quick glance at the requirements

• REPORT will announce the X,Y and F of the robot. This can be in any form, but standard output is sufficient.

I think we can use tuple as a result in the following format {x, y, facing}. We will start with the test for that:

test "provides the report of the robot's position" do
robot = ToyRobot.place(2, 3, :west)
assert ToyRobot.report(robot) == {2, 3, :west}
end


The implementation is pretty simple. All we need to do is to fetch those values from the robot’s position structure. We can achieve using the power of the Pattern Matching.

def report(robot) do
%ToyRobot.Position{x: x, y: y, facing: facing} = robot

{x, y, facing}
end


In this implementation, we are using function attribute on the right side and we are matching it with the structure on the left side. It will assign required values to our x, y and facing variables, which we use to build a tuple.

Now as soon as we are using the robot argument only for extract values from it, we can move pattern matching expression right into function params. We can also ignore the value itself by renaming it into _robot.

def report(%ToyRobot.Position{x: x, y: y, facing: facing} = _robot) do
{x, y, facing}
end


That is the complete implementation of ToyRobot.report/1.

If you came from the Object-Oriented background you can notice the difference in the implementation here. In OOP we usually have an object, objects know their state. In our case, it is position of the robot. Then we send a message report to an object without additional arguments and the object itself can provide all required data.

Well, actually it should be separate Report class which receives the object and build the report. The object itself should not know how to report itself. But anyway, those are details of the implementation. I just want to make it as simple as possible.

So, unlike OOP in functional programming, we need to pass all required data to the function as arguments. What is why our report function expects the following structure.

## Rotate the robot

Now it’s time to implement rotation of the robot.

• LEFT and RIGHT will rotate the robot 90 degrees in the specified direction without changing the position of the robot.

First goes the test:

test "rotates the robot to the right" do
position = ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)
|> ToyRobot.right
|> ToyRobot.report

assert position == {0, 0, :east}
end


Here we have placed our robot into 0x0 position facing to the north, then we rotate it to the right and ask to report the position. We were using the Pipe Operator here to chain our functions.

#### The Pipe Operator |>

This expression can be written in a less nicer form:

robot = ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)
robot = ToyRobot.right(robot)
position = ToyRobot.report(robot)


The alternative way would be to write it without additional variables:

position = ToyRobot.report(ToyRobot.right(ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)))


The disadvantages of this line are that you need to read it inside out to see the order of function calls.

Elixir provides us a better way to do that. The |> operator takes the result of the function on the left side and passes it as a first argument of the function on its right side. If a function has more than one argument, you need to pass them except the first one.

For example next two examples are equivalent:

function(value1, value2)

value1 |> function(value2)


Ok. Now when we become familiar with the Pipe Operator we can proceed.

In the end, we are expecting the robot to remain in the same place, but facing to the east.

To rotate the robot right, we need to know the next facing direction regarding its current direction. If the robot looks to the north, it should turn to the east. If it looks to the east, it should turn to the south and so on.

For that case, I think a Map with the all available directions should work well for us. Let’s check the implementation of the function.

def right(%ToyRobot.Position{facing: facing} = robot) do
directions_to_the_right = %{north: :east, east: :south, south: :west, west: :north}

%ToyRobot.Position{robot | facing: directions_to_the_right[facing]}
end


Here we have the Map with the directions, passing the current facing direction as a key we can get the next direction. Then we return the position of the robot containing updated :facing value, but keep rest of the attributes the same as before.

Let’s extend our test to check more rotation possibilities. For example, if we rotate the robot twice, it should look to the south.

test "rotates the robot to the right" do
position = ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)
|> ToyRobot.right
|> ToyRobot.report

assert position == {0, 0, :east}

position = ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)
|> ToyRobot.right
|> ToyRobot.right
|> ToyRobot.report

assert position == {0, 0, :south}
end


Usually, it’s considered as a bad practice to have more than one asserts per unit test, but for the sake of example let’s keep it like that for now.

Now we need to implement the rotation to the left, which would be similar to the rotation to the right.

test "rotates the robot to the left" do
position = ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)
|> ToyRobot.left
|> ToyRobot.report

assert position == {0, 0, :west}
end


To turn the robot left we can use the similar Map. It is similar because the rotation direction is different now. Looking to the north and rotate left, we need to turn the robot to the west. Then to the south and so on.

def left(%ToyRobot.Position{facing: facing} = robot) do
directions_to_the_left = %{north: :west, west: :south, south: :east, east: :north}
%ToyRobot.Position{robot | facing: directions_to_the_left[facing]}
end


That works.

But let’s think for a minute, what can we improve here? What the difference between directions_to_the_right and directions_to_the_left?

The difference is, that is one the inverse version of another. So if we take directions_to_the_right and swap the keys and the values, we will get the same map as directions_to_the_left.

iex>  directions_to_the_right = %{north: :east, east: :south, south: :west, west: :north}
%{east: :south, north: :east, south: :west, west: :north}

iex> Enum.map(directions_to_the_right, fn {from, to} -> {to, from} end)
[south: :east, east: :north, west: :south, north: :west]


Let’s apply this knowledge to our code. At first, to have access to directions_to_the_right let’s extract it into Module attribute and refactor our ToyRobot.right/1 function:

@directions_to_the_right %{north: :east, east: :south, south: :west, west: :north}
def right(%ToyRobot.Position{facing: facing} = robot) do
%ToyRobot.Position{robot | facing: @directions_to_the_right[facing]}
end


Now we are ready to refactor ToyRobot.left/1 function as well:

@directions_to_the_left Enum.map(@directions_to_the_right, fn {from, to} -> {to, from} end)
def left(%ToyRobot.Position{facing: facing} = robot) do
%ToyRobot.Position{robot | facing: @directions_to_the_left[facing]}
end


We are enumerating through our map and swap the values using anonymous function.

Great. I would like to write one more test just to overlap the checks of the rotation. The idea is to check that rotation thrice into one direction is the same as rotation once in the opposite.

test "rotating the robot 3 times to the right is the same as rotating it to the left" do
right_position = ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)
|> ToyRobot.right
|> ToyRobot.right
|> ToyRobot.right
|> ToyRobot.report

left_position =  ToyRobot.place(0, 0, :north)
|> ToyRobot.left
|> ToyRobot.report

assert right_position == left_position
end


And it also works

→ mix test
Compiling 1 file (.ex)
......

Finished in 0.05 seconds
6 tests, 0 failures


### Wrapping up the first part

In this part, we have implemented three parts of robots functionality. We are able to place our robot in the specified position, we can rotate it left and right and we can ask robot to report his current position.

See you soon in the second part where we will implement the movement of the robot and apply some improvements for our functions.